Amadioha: The Igbo God of Thunder and Lightning


by Omenka Egwuatu Nwa-Ikenga

Last week, I had the luxury of seeing the movie Thor. I was very excited to see the movie for a number of different reasons. For one, I am a very big  fan of superheroes, and love to watch both animated and live action movies and television series based off them. Secondly, I also happen to be a huge fan of mythology (In particular, Graeco-Roman, Judeo-Christian, Hindu and of course , the various ones of Africa) and I think that one of the best ways to understand a peoples culture and values is to read their mythology.  So since this movie was a mixture of two of the things I love most, it was at the top of the list for on my “movies to watch” list.


The comic book character Thor was based off the Norse God of Thunder by the same name. According to Stan Lee, he had been looking for a hero that could compete with the Hulk, and he figured that since no man could, he would have to use a god…literally. So he adapted various characters from the mythology of  the Nordic and Germanic people into comic book characters.

The Mighty Thor

Thor was said to  rule over thunder, lightning, and storms. He was associated with oak trees, strength, destruction, fertility, healing, and was seen by his worshipers as the protector of mankind against the Jötunn, a race of malevolent nature spirits.  The day of the week Thursday actually stems from his sacred day, and literally means “Thor’s day.” He carried a large hammer called Mjölnir which is still worn today as a pendant by many European neo-pagans.

Hammer of Thor

But the most compelling reason that I was drawn to see this movie (more so than most of the other superhero films that were coming out this year such as Captain America and the Green Lantern was the fact that Thor reminds me ALOT of another God of Thunder that also happens to be one of my favorites: Amadioha.

Artist’s depiction of Amadioha

Amadioha is one of the most popular of the Igbo deities. In fact, right after water spirits, the gods of thunder and lightning like Shango, Siete Rayos, Nzaji, etc  seem to be the most well known and liked of all the deities all over Africa and its diaspora.  Although he is usually referred to as Amadioha, that is not really a name, but one of his many epithets, which also include Igwe, Ofufe, and Igwekaala. The proper name of this entity would actually be Kamalu, or Kalu Akanu, and that’s the name that I use personally when referring to him.

Much of what is said about the other gods of thunder and lightning can be said about Amadioha: They serve as agents of justice, they are associated with war and aggression, and their colors tend to be red and white.  People who have been accused of crimes go to their shrines to declare their innocence, less they be struck by lightning.

Unlike his fellow thunder and lightning deities, Amadioha doesn’t carry an object of power like Thor carries his hammer or like his second cousin Shango carries his axe. If he did carry something, I would assume it would be an Ogu stick, seeing as though its the symbol of justice. The ram is sacred to alot of the African thunder and lightning gods, both as a sacrifice and as a symbol. In fact, Amadioha at times appears to people in the form of a large white ram.


Amadioha in the form of a ram

Even though the vast majority of Igbo people profess to be Bible believing Christians, belief in Amadioha still remains strong. I remember a conversation I had with a traditional ruler  a few years ago while he was visiting the states about when he described an evening when he went outside during a storm and saw his the grass near his compound on fire, but not burning. Afterwards, a white ram appeared out of nowhere. When it was all over, it was like nothing had happened.

Amadioha is also still used to curse people or threaten them. I can’t count the number of times that I have heard the phrase “thunder fire you!” or “Amadioha magbukwa gi!” (Amadioha will punish you!) Just the other day, I read an article where one of the priests of Amadioha proclaimed that the deity would punish any of the candidates if they dared try to rig the Governorship or House of Assembly polls in Nigeria.  I personally would have more confidence in elected officials in Nigeria if they had to swear oaths at Amadioha’s shrine instead of swearing them on the Bible or Koran, and I’m pretty sure I’m not alone in that sentiment.

What tends to happen when folks swear on the Bible/Quran

Although I was raised as a Christian, I was always very curious about what my ancestors believed and practiced. So I took it upon myself to actually research it. When I read about the Igbo deities, Amadioha was one that really stuck out to me for some odd reason. That affinity towards him never went away, and to this day, he’s one of my favorite of the Igbo Alusi.

When I was in the early days of my traditional practice, I was trying to figure out how I would make shrines and alters for the different deities. I asked some elders for images of the different Alusi  and the response I got was one of amusement. They explained to me that trying to find an image of a Mmuo (spirit) was like trying to find an image of the wind, and that each picture or carving that you’ve ever seen of any of them is just an artistic representation of an invisible force.

Wind Blowing

Wind Blowing

Furthermore, the vast majority of the times, most of the shrines  to the different forces of nature weren’t carvings or images at all, but rather plants, trees, or simple combination of rocks and wood. For example, one  examples of a traditional shrine to Amadioha would be a log resting on two large bamboo posts. I didn’t get the lessons at first, but one day it hit me:  My ancestors were very artistic in the way they created their shrines, and the spirits that they represented would always appear to my ancestors in ways that they could recognize them. So I asked myself, how would I want them to appear to me? I’m a young man growing up in the age of Youtube, Facebook and Iphones. What would a supernatural being look like to me? Perhaps a superhero? A superhero representation for Amadioha was the first one that came to mind. It was pretty easy too:

The Man of Steel (John Henry Irons)

Steel (also known as the Man of Steel) is a comic book character in the DC universe. His alter ego is Dr. John Henry Irons, a brilliant weapons engineer who creates a high powered suit of armor to fight crime after Superman gets killed by Doomsday. This character was inspired by the legendary African American folkhero John Henry. He is very similar to Marvel’s Iron Man.  Although he has no superpowers, but his suit grants him flight, enhanced strength, and endurance.

Steel was the image that I decided to use to represent Amadioha for my shrine. If he were to appear to me in a vision or dream, that is how he would look like, combined with the abilities of Thor. What I did was very similar to what alot of enslaved Africand did in Santeria, Voodoo and Palo Mayombe when they placed pictures of Catholic Saints to represent their deities in order to avoid religious persecution. However, since I could never see myself using images of my enemy to represent my deities, I choose to use comic book characters instead.

After I made one for Amadioha, I started making similar shrines for other Alusi, using various comic book characters. If one went into my room and didn’t know any better, you would think I was just obsessed with comic books and nothing more 🙂 Another comic book character I used to represent an Alusi was The Human Torch. He is the image I use to represent Anyanwu, which is the spirit of the Sun. I will go in depth in the near future on the process of syncretism and how one can start to create shrines and images that work for them.

The Human Torch

While we are on the topic of symbolism, lets break down what Amadioha really means. Metaphysically, Amadioha represents the collective will of the people. An analysis of his name says so much. The name is a combination of Amadi and Oha. The first word, Amadi, is a name given to freeborn males. Oha  is a concept that deals with the power community. Traditionally, Igbo communities were not ruled by monarchs, and made their decision by using Ohas (community assemblies). Whatever they agreed on, the community was responsible for enforcing. From my understanding, the Oha title is also supposed to be the last highest level of the Ozo title system. And its one that is virtually impossible to get, because it belongs to the people!  So as the rules are made by the Earth Mother Ani (who metaphysically represents the unity of the people), they are enforced by Amadioha (their collective willpower) through lightning and thunder.

In other words, the Amadioha shrine, along with the other similar ones in Africa were said to be an indigenous form of weather manipulation. Besides being used to bring rain (which exists in just about EVERY society in the form of  a rain dance/prayer…even until today!), it also was used to enforce the rules and regulations that were made by the community. While people have conspiracy theories about alleged government weather warfare programs like HAARP, some Africans in the bush might have claimed to be successful in doing naturally what modern scientists  have attempted to do with machines. The power of Amadioha really makes me wonder what else Africans could do if they decided to come together. It also brings a whole new meaning to the phrase: “The Power to the People!”

Black Power!!!


27 responses »

  1. By offering this write up, the author has helped to explain the concept of amadioha as the god of thunder and lightening in light of Igbo society, mythology and cosmology. What stood out for me is the comparative approach adopted to highlight the semantics of amadioha as well as the uses to which amadioha is put in the life and culture of Igbo people in Nigeria. I find the submission useful and hope more of such studies will continue to bring perspectives into the notions of amadioha, Igbo medicine, Igbo metaphysics, religious ethnics and social moralism. For more information on amadioha and Igbo medicine and culture, see Dr. Patrick Iroegbu’s recent work captioned “Healing Insanity: A Study of Igbo Medicine in Contemporary Nigeria (2010)” available in

  2. As always Onyemaobi, you’ve shed an incredible light on another great Igbo incarnation. I feel the same way concerning the lack of representation for our gods and deities–artistically and otherwise–in this contemporary times. It is such a pity that our people have chosen to live in the very sacrilegious manners that they do as of today. But may the gods who have kept our minds thus awakened and at-one with our heritage–further strengthen your will my brother. May all that you ask of them be granted for you in fullness…Iseeee.

  3. Good job Nwanne. May the ancestors continue to guide you in your work and efforts. Just like you, I am also smitten by Kamalu/Amadioha. Besides being a god of justice, he is also a benevolent deity, committed to the earth, Ala, and her offsprings.

  4. This is fascinating! Thank you for sharing your insights on Amadioha.

    I am intrigued by syncretism; I like it much better than intolerance. I think it’s important that people find images of the divine or other powers that resonate for them personally. I practice a variety of religions and I know a lot of eclectics. We’ve done rituals using literary figures and even cartoon characters, because those had a lot of meaning for people involved. It works.

  5. Chukwu is the sovereign igbo GOD, still worshipped till today…trend towards a unified civilization places Chukwu high above all created.

    Amadioha is dead but his memory lingers.
    All powers belong to Chukwu

  6. My prayer is that all people of good character see the wisdom, beauty and validity of returning to the spiritual view which came from their own people! The great kingdoms of Kemet, Nubia and yes Igboland did so because of that which came from within and manifested out.

    May your good work continue to inform and expand to all to need to see.

  7. This is about the most informative write i have come across on the internet on the deity Kamalu. Thank for posting. I am currently working on a huge project and need alot of information on our ancient gods( gods of ndi igbo).. So if any one knows of any where i can get more info, please leave me a reply on this wall…Appreciate the post.. keep up the good work..

  8. Pingback: Anyanwu: The Eye of Light « Odinani: The Sacred Sciences of the Igbo People

  9. Ur write up is insightful and intresting im a comic artist making a comicbook nigerian by the way and would appreciate if u could email me a list of the alusi,orishas and hausa dieties theyr immpossible 2 find and u seem to have well grounded sources anyone can help. Thanks…

  10. Ur write up is insightful and intresting im a comic artist making a comicbook nigerian by the way and would appreciate if u could email me a list of the alusi,orishas and hausa dieties theyr immpossible 2 find and u seem to have well grounded sources anyone can help. Thanks…

  11. Thank you for such a lovely article.

    It really resonated with me and has given some ideas I would have never considered: superhero images to represent deities.

    Keep up the good work.

  12. I have long had this strong passion for mythical stories, stories about supernatural beings and deities. Thoughts about how to re-represent our igbo and africa myths into a full flegged symbols the world at large can look up to and learn from. Your article on Amadioha have created the much needed drive to see that my thoughts and believes about our myths are already taking a step into a world familiarity as supernatural heroes of some sought.

  13. ur write up was gud.i must say…gave me a beta undstndin of d igbo mythology…hweva there’s smfin i picked 4rm al u wrote….u rily dnt bliv in God,note “God” nt god,bt u do av alot of intrest in god,or should i say gods,those things are demons,amadi oha nd the rest of them they aint God,jesus definitly nt one of God’s angels…yes our ancestors did worshp them cos they didnt knw God then nd d demons wia dominant bt we re enlightened nd shud knw beta….there is jst one God “JEHOVAH.” that’s al dat rily matters….amadioha nd d rest like u said re dieties bt u 4got 2mentn d fct dat they re demons.

  14. Oooh very nice write-up. I was raised Christian but I definitely have an interest in the old gods – dunno why. I don’t question it, after all, I never questioned my interest in Greek and Roman myths growing up either. (‘Sides, a lot of Christian tradition has it’s roots in Roman mythology. See: Modern day ((‘church’ or ‘white’)) weddings. This is such an interesting post!

    (I’d comb through and correct the typos though, if I were you. Many an expert has lost validity over bad spelling! Iwe gi adina oku, obughi onu ka m n’ako gi.)

    I will ask though, why are your representations based on deities which are largely based on white folk, Norse or no? And who are the ‘enemy’ you refer to exactly?

    Daalu nke oma. Ebe amamihe gi a siri puta, mmaji pulu mmaji.

  15. To Omenka Egwuata. nice write up i must say, I need more information on this,
    pls kindly send me your phone number and contact address via my email. thanks

  16. Pingback: Major African Gods And Their Origin | 365Naija

  17. All nations have their Traditions I love to see that not all igbos have forgotten our Gods and Goddesses but the higher God in Igbo land is called Kamalu, or Amadioha this is one god of war and justice chukwu never goes to war without kamalu, this Kamalu means Thunder in English language,
    Thanks for all your experiences.

  18. Its good to know that I am not alone in a quest to go back to our roots. Most people told me that I am mad but I now know that I am not or at least, I am not the only one. Amadioha will always be with us.

    • you cannot be Alone because there are lots of Igbos who also understands God, Thunder is God and God is thunder, though He manifest in many ways the only way many understands is that God is a consuming fire He is equally a consuming Thunder

  19. Very beautiful write up. I can relate to this. I am a Yoruba child who was raised christian as well. I have been taught (brainwashed) that the spirituality of our ancestors is demonic. It’s a shame we call it being enlightened to demonize our spirituality. Our oppressors stole from us, lied to us, demonized our spirituality, and gave us their religion. However, I am not trying to dissuade anyone from Christianity and Islam if they have found peace in it. However, I believe it is a travesty and an insult to our roots, our ancestry, our history, to demonize our spirituality.


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